Monday, August 24, 2020

Madeline leininger Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Madeline leininger - Article Example For this situation, she clarifies how the orders of nursing and humanities ought to be converged to permit nurture live and work easily in zones with extraordinary social practices. The second significant stage was to initiate instructive projects and courses to get ready medical caretakers in the new restriction. In this, the creator contends that medical attendants must pick up information and abilities fundamental for the new standards, ideas, and highlights so as to direct their activities and thinking. The article stresses on instructing medical attendants and getting ready pioneers in this order. For this situation, the creator remarks that the nursing discipline has been inconsequential investigated for quite a while and henceforth nurture require satisfactory preparing in the new idea. Furthermore, the article has recommended that the field of information be putting together and establishing with respect to reported research. Different advances recommended in the article incorporate broad research, building up generalists and master, and planning procedures to help the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Physical Education In School Essay Example For Students

Physical Education In School Essay I accept that Elementary School physical training is a basic educational program for the improvement everything being equal. Early physical instruction classes give youngsters with a vehicle for movement from the arbitrary play stage to the possible sorted out game and inevitable organized learning. All through this process, youngsters become familiar with the estimation of gathering elements. Qualities, for example, sharing, cooperative effort, correspondence and regard for others become basic practice. Separated from bunch improvement, physical instruction at an early age can likewise significantly assist youngsters with prevailing in the homeroom condition. All youngsters learn at various rates. Learning new thoughts and creating them require time and much practice before arriving at some achievement. Most kids sooner or later during this period will battle. Physical training at this age can give youngsters the chance to progress and be a kind of mental break. Games and Play can be grown so children can connect learning with movement. Since kids appreciate games and play and can without much of a stretch prevail in this medium, physical movement subsequently certainty guard that will keep going forever in each youngster. Accomplishment in play can be extended into the study hall and in future life attempts. Physical instruction for youngsters is likewise significant in the improvement of their bodies. During this early period in level lives, youngsters can create poor dietary patterns that make physical play hard to take part in, inevitably weaning youngsters from physical movement cooperation. It is along these lines essential to keep kids associated with physical interest, showing them the estimations of interest in this way setting the establishment for physical interest for an amazing remainder. Aside from the physical prizes of physical instruction, kids can likewise extend their inventive personalities in physical play. Through play, kids are liberated to be as inventive as they so wish. Experimentation of the psyche and body is an ordinary event in play areas as kids adjusts games and grow new difficulties for their psyches and body. Play areas are changed into outside terrains to investigate, fields become arenas lawn arenas become proficient hockey amphitheaters where legends are made and anybody can be score the triumphant objective, race to triumph and spare the world in under an hours time. These are only a portion of the qualities that early physical training can give to a creating youngster. The significance of these values as evolved through physical instruction I feel will direct the degrees of individual achievement any individual will have in their life. .

Wednesday, July 22, 2020

A Short Guide to Essay Writing Using Topics

A Short Guide to Essay Writing Using TopicsEssay writing and the reading of topics are tools that Austin Community College ESL instructors use to help students understand what they are learning in the classroom. Topics are the main material students must learn in order to learn the major concepts in a subject.A topic is a short paragraph or sentence to which the student's understanding of the basic ideas of the class can be expanded. It is not a synopsis of a lecture, although topics are often used as discussion starters. The purpose of a topic is to demonstrate the student's capacity to use the different concepts in a text. Topics can be used in classroom discussions, essay writing, or other studies.Different authors have used topics to introduce different parts of their works. Henry David Thoreau wrote On Civil Disobedience, which uses topics to introduce the idea of change to the audience. The most famous topic to be used by a contemporary author is from the writings of Margaret A twood: MaddAddam, MaddAddam.In MaddAddam, the three different chapters each explain a different concept. Each chapter builds on what was presented in the previous chapter. In addition, each chapter ends with a thought-provoking sentence that serves as a conclusion to the concept being taught. The best way to see how this technique works is to read the chapters out loud.The chapters in The Way We Weren't discuss different groups in the plot of the book. The main theme of the book is the difficult decision between commitment and family. Each chapter presents a different perspective on this dilemma, and each chapter ends with a word or phrase that illustrates the point being presented. The best way to see this technique work is to read out loud and see the different interpretations expressed by the various characters.One of the simplest ways to apply topics is through an English course. Assign students to read five to ten short paragraphs and list all the topic of the paragraph. One we ek later, students will be given one of the topics to read and the task will be to write a response.English teachers often use themes as topics during quizzes and exams, to keep students on topic. This technique may not be applicable for many students, but there are teachers who have found it very effective. Teaching writers often use topics as their main source of inspiration and topic.Themes come in many different styles, from melodramatic and racy to humorous and serious, and every writer can find a way to use it to the advantage of their own writing. Using topics as essay writing is a quick way to bring the class together and provide students with opportunities to show their understanding of the material in class.

Friday, May 22, 2020

E Commerce Security Threats And The Solutions Essay

During the early 1960’s, E-Commerce businesses conducted electronic transactions via primitive computer networks† but the way these transactions were exchanged provided little to no security(34).This made online transactions on WWW(World Wide Web), not reliable and unsecured making consumers eager to not take the chance of risking their information, on an unprotected system. During the early 1960’s came â€Å"Electronic Data Interchange(EDI). EDI replaced traditional mailing and faxing of documents with a digital transfer of data from one computer to another†.(35)This was the first step toward the E-Commerce that is present today.Then the influential SSL protocol would come to be which helped to improve the state of security on the WWW. This led to more protocols being introduced, leading to other detrimental protocols such as (3D Secure, TLS, SET). These protocols, that were just mentioned are still widely used today. This paper will go over the threats a nd the solutions of E-Commerce security. E-Commerce security threats according to â€Å"FindLaw UK, major threats to E-Commerce can be grouped into two categories, malicious and accidental threats†.(34) The first threat gone over will be malicious threats which â€Å"include hackers attempting to penetrate a system and steal sensitive data, burglars stealing a laptop that has sensitive data on it and impostors posing as legitimate users and then copying website information†.(34)Another major threat to E-Commerce â€Å"involves attackersShow MoreRelatedSecurity and Payment Issues Faced by e-commerce Business in the Hospitality Industry978 Words   |  4 Pagesviolations and cyber-attacks to e-commerce systems especially in the hospitality industry. â€Å"In 2011, Trustwave SpiderLabs conducted 42 percent more data breach investigations than in the previous year. More than 85 percent of these data breaches occurred in the food and beverage, retail and hospitality industries.† (Savitz Percoco, 2012). It seems logical that any business would understand that building a secure business is important to long term success. (Vacca, 2012). E-commerce as a catalyst has ledRead MoreImplementing A Company s Security Plan Essay1089 Words   |  5 PagesAssignment- Security Jean Robert Robillard BUSN624: Principles of E-Commerce APUS Professor: Alex Lazio 11/27/16 Weekly Assignment-Security 1. Identify and describe the five main steps in establishing a company’s security plan? The IT department of e-commerce firms must have a security plan to protect the technologies and assess the risks. Laudon and Traver identify five steps in establishing and assessing the company’s security plan. The followings are the steps: risk assessment, security policyRead More The E-Commerce Opportunity Essay633 Words   |  3 Pages The E-Commerce Opportunity A secure e-commerce Web site can provide businesses with powerful competitive advantages, including increased online retail sales as well as streamlined application processes for products such as insurance, mortgages, or credit cards. E-commerce credit card sales can be especially lucrative: according to independent analysts, cash transactions on the Internet will reach $9 billion in 2000, and $30 billion in 2005. By offering products and services on the Web, businessesRead MoreEssay on Internet and a Business Information Security1617 Words   |  7 PagesEnsuring the security of a businesses’ information and assets is a critical part of a company’s success. The many facets of the World Wide Web have made protecting data a critical function for companies world-wide. Companies owe it to their customers to maintain proper security regarding sensitive information obtained when processing services or storing sensitive data. Electronic commerce, or E-Commerce for short, is a type of industry where consumers buy or sell goods and services, by using theRead MoreMarketing and E-business1592 Words   |  7 PagesE-Business E-business is the largest emerging trend in business today. The movement into e-business is dramatically changing the way people buy and sell. Business is no longer a one for all concept, that concept is being replaced by a consumer economy that is driven by choice. These choices are not only in product and price but in shopping environment as well, where their transactions can take place face to face or in an online environment. Not only are traditional businesses completing theirRead More e-Business Essay example1536 Words   |  7 Pages E-Business E-business is the largest emerging trend in business today. The movement into e-business is dramatically changing the way people buy and sell. Business is no longer a one for all concept, that concept is being replaced by a consumer economy that is driven by choice. These choices are not only in product and price but in shopping environment as well, where their transactions can take place face to face or in an online environment. Not only are traditional businesses completing their transactionsRead MoreNetworking : The Future Of Networking Essay1364 Words   |  6 PagesHowever, the development of cost-effective networks will decrease the overall cost of networking and boost bandwidth. Some of the key factors that will continue to drive networking in the years to come include; data, the internet, telecommuting and e-commerce. The increase in online access is going to increase access to information and online services. For this reason, various organizations will be forced to integrat e their current disjointed networks into a single formidable, multi-service network.Read MoreElectronic Commerce Essay1144 Words   |  5 Pagesits maximum. Role of E-Commerce in the modern Business: 1. You can buy and sell almost everything at your doorstep with the magic of e-commerce in this 21st century which will be known for information revolution. E-commerce has changed your lifestyles entirely because you don’t have to spend time and money in travelling to the market. You can do your e-payments with the help of e-commerce. 2. You can pick up the pace of your online business with the help of e-commerce application developmentRead MoreSocial Networking, E Commerce, Information Systems, It Risk Management Essay1215 Words   |  5 PagesThe purpose of this report is to understand the following topics which are Social networking, E commerce, information systems, IT risk management and how they have influenced the modern day business organizations in terms of Promoting their business through social networks, how important to have a risk management plan in an organization, and how Ecommerce has become essential part of the business, also The value of information system is for the people of the modern world. Introduction Social Networks:-Read MoreePayments and eCommerce: Assignment1310 Words   |  6 Pagestypes of e-payment systems should B2C merchants support? many customers are still very afraid to purchase online because of the security issues that s why it s very good to have more than one payment method, payment methods include E-cheques, credit cards, Gift cards, and the best one from my point of view because it s very known for safe online shopping is PayPal. 2. Describe the major issues in fraudulent orders perpetrated against online merchants. What measures and solutions should

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Theories Of Personality, By Abraham Maslow, Gordon...

When it comes to understanding the theories of personality, there are several psychologists that put their input in to help us understand the theories of personality. The individuals that have contributed to the theories of personality and have made us understand the topic more would be Abraham Maslow, Gordon Allport, Albert Bandura, and Raymond Cattell. Abraham Maslow was born in Brooklyn, New York April 1, 1908. As a young child, Abraham was the oldest child out of seven brothers and sister. â€Å"His parents were first generation Jewish immigrants from Russia who fled from Czarist persecution in the early 20th century (Cherry).† After fleeing from Czarists, Abraham’s parents decided to live in New York and in a multiethnic working class neighborhood. When Abraham was old enough to attend school, it was a tough time for him because he would experience anti-Semitism from his teachers and other students that were around. He never got alone with his mother and he told hi s mother What I had reacted to was not only her physical appearance, but also her values and world view, her stinginess, her total selfishness, her lack of love for anyone else in the world (Cherry).† As the years pasted, Abraham graduated from high school and began attending the City College of New York in the year 1926. When Abraham began college in 1926, he didn’t start out studying Psychology; he started studying law. Soon after, Abraham transferred from the City College of New York to the University ofShow MoreRelatedPSYC 2301 3 Essay4271 Words   |  18 Pagesï » ¿ A collective term for the economic, occupational, and educational factors that influence an individuals relative position in society defines _____ Select one: a. historical racism. b. the secondary appraisal. c. the biopsychosocial theory. d. socioeconomic status. Question  2 Not yet answered Marked out of 2.00 Flag question Question text A  _____ is any stimulus or event capable of producing physical or emotional stress. Select one: a. catastrophe b. coping mechanism c. uplift d. stressor Question  3Read MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pages0-13-283487-1 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-283487-2 Brief Contents Preface xxii 1 2 Introduction 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Individual 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Diversity in Organizations 39 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 69 Emotions and Moods 97 Personality and Values 131 Perception and Individual Decision Making 165 Motivation Concepts 201 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 239 3 The Group 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Foundations of Group Behavior 271 Understanding Work Teams 307 Communication

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Chapter 13 Mad-eye Moody Free Essays

string(80) " of frog liver and lower them into the crates to tempt the Blast-Ended Skrewts\." The storm had blown itself out by the following morning, though the ceiling in the Great Hall was still gloomy; heavy clouds of pewter gray swirled overhead as Harry, Ron, and Hermione examined their new course schedules at breakfast. A few seats along, Fred, George, and Lee Jordan were discussing magical methods of aging themselves and bluffing their way into the Triwizard Tournament. â€Å"Today’s not bad†¦outside all morning,† said Ron, who was running his finger down the Monday column of his schedule. We will write a custom essay sample on Chapter 13 Mad-eye Moody or any similar topic only for you Order Now â€Å"Herbology with the Hufflepuffs and Care of Magical Creatures†¦damn it, we’re still with the Slytherins†¦.† â€Å"Double Divination this afternoon,† Harry groaned, looking down. Divination was his least favorite subject, apart from Potions. Professor Trelawney kept predicting Harry’s death, which he found extremely annoying. â€Å"You should have given it up like me, shouldn’t you?† said Hermione briskly, buttering herself some toast. â€Å"Then you’d be doing something sensible like Arithmancy.† â€Å"You’re eating again, I notice,† said Ron, watching Hermione adding liberal amounts of jam to her toast too. â€Å"I’ve decided there are better ways of making a stand about elf rights,† said Hermione haughtily. â€Å"Yeah†¦and you were hungry,† said Ron, grinning. There was a sudden rustling noise above them, and a hundred owls came soaring through the open windows carrying the morning mail. Instinctively, Harry looked up, but there was no sign of white among the mass of brown and gray. The owls circled the tables, looking for the people to whom their letters and packages were addressed. A large tawny owl soared down to Neville Longbottom and deposited a parcel into his lap – Neville almost always forgot to pack something. On the other side of the Hall Draco Malfoy’s eagle owl had landed on his shoulder, carrying what looked like his usual supply of sweets and cakes from home. Trying to ignore the sinking feeling of disappointment in his stomach, Harry returned to his porridge. Was it possible that something had happened to Hedwig, and that Sirius hadn’t even got his letter? His preoccupation lasted all the way across the sodden vegetable patch until they arrived in greenhouse three, but here he was distracted by Professor Sprout showing the class the ugliest plants Harry had ever seen. Indeed, they looked less like plants than thick, black, giant slugs, protruding vertically out of the soil. Each was squirming slightly and had a number of large, shiny swellings upon it, which appeared to be full of liquid. â€Å"Bubotubers,† Professor Sprout told them briskly. â€Å"They need squeezing. You will collect the pus -â€Å" â€Å"The what?† said Seamus Finnigan, sounding revolted. â€Å"Pus, Finnigan, pus,† said Professor Sprout, â€Å"and it’s extremely valuable, so don’t waste it. You will collect the pus, I say, in these bottles. Wear your dragon-hide gloves; it can do funny things to the skin when undiluted, bubotuber pus.† Squeezing the bubotubers was disgusting, but oddly satisfying. As each swelling was popped, a large amount of thick yellowish-green liquid burst forth, which smelled strongly of petrol. They caught it in the bottles as Professor Sprout had indicated, and by the end of the lesson had collected several pints. â€Å"This’ll keep Madam Pomfrey happy,† said Professor Sprout, stoppering the last bottle with a cork. â€Å"An excellent remedy for the more stubborn forms of acne, bubotuber pus. Should stop students resorting to desperate measures to rid themselves of pimples.† â€Å"Like poor Eloise Midgen,† said Hannah Abbott, a Hufflepuff, in a hushed voice. â€Å"She tried to curse hers off.† â€Å"Silly girl,† said Professor Sprout, shaking her head. â€Å"But Madam Pomfrey fixed her nose back on in the end.† A booming bell echoed from the castle across the wet grounds, signaling the end of the lesson, and the class separated; the Hufflepuffs climbing the stone steps for Transfiguration, and the Gryffindors heading in the other direction, down the sloping lawn toward Hagrid’s small wooden cabin, which stood on the edge of the Forbidden Forest. Hagrid was standing outside his hut, one hand on the collar of his enormous black boarhound, Fang. There were several open wooden crates on the ground at his feet, and Fang was whimpering and straining at his collar, apparently keen to investigate the contents more closely. As they drew nearer, an odd rattling noise reached their ears, punctuated by what sounded like minor explosions. â€Å"Mornin’!† Hagrid said, grinning at Harry, Ron, and Hermione. â€Å"Be’er wait fer the Slytherins, they won’ want ter miss this – Blast-Ended Skrewts!† â€Å"Come again?† said Ron. Hagrid pointed down into the crates. â€Å"Eurgh!† squealed Lavender Brown, jumping backward. â€Å"Eurgh† just about summed up the Blast-Ended Skrewts in Harry’s opinion. They looked like deformed, shell-less lobsters, horribly pale and slimy-looking, with legs sticking out in very odd places and no visible heads. There were about a hundred of them in each crate, each about six inches long, crawling over one another, bumping blindly into the sides of the boxes. They were giving off a very powerful smell of rotting fish. Every now and then, sparks would fly out of the end of a skrewt, and with a small phut, it would be propelled forward several inches. â€Å"On’y jus’ hatched,† said Hagrid proudly, â€Å"so yeh’ll be able ter raise ’em yerselves! Thought we’d make a bit of a project of it!† â€Å"And why would we want to raise them?† said a cold voice. The Slytherins had arrived. The speaker was Draco Malfoy. Crabbe and Goyle were chuckling appreciatively at his words. Hagrid looked stumped at the question. â€Å"I mean, what do they do?† asked Malfoy. â€Å"What is the point of them?† Hagrid opened his mouth, apparently thinking hard; there was a few seconds’ pause, then he said roughly, â€Å"Tha’s next lesson, Malfoy. Yer jus’ feedin’ ’em today. Now, yeh’ll wan’ ter try ’em on a few diff’rent things – I’ve never had ’em before, not sure what they’ll go fer – I got ant eggs an’ frog livers an’ a bit o’ grass snake – just try ’em out with a bit of each.† â€Å"First pus and now this,† muttered Seamus. Nothing but deep affection for Hagrid could have made Harry, Ron, and Hermione pick up squelchy handfuls of frog liver and lower them into the crates to tempt the Blast-Ended Skrewts. You read "Chapter 13 Mad-eye Moody" in category "Essay examples" Harry couldn’t suppress the suspicion that the whole thing was entirely pointless, because the skrewts didn’t seem to have mouths. â€Å"Ouch!† yelled Dean Thomas after about ten minutes. â€Å"It got me.† Hagrid hurried over to him, looking anxious. â€Å"Its end exploded!† said Dean angrily, showing Hagrid a burn on his hand. â€Å"Ah, yeah, that can happen when they blast off,† said Hagrid, nodding. â€Å"Eurgh!† said Lavender Brown again. â€Å"Eurgh, Hagrid, what’s that pointy thing on it?† â€Å"Ah, some of ’em have got stings,† said Hagrid enthusiastically (Lavender quickly withdrew her hand from the box). â€Å"I reckon they’re the males†¦.The females’ve got sorta sucker things on their bellies†¦.I think they might be ter suck blood.† â€Å"Well, I can certainly see why we’re trying to keep them alive,† said Malfoy sarcastically. â€Å"Who wouldn’t want pets that can burn, sting, and bite all at once?† â€Å"Just because they’re not very pretty, it doesn’t mean they’re not useful,† Hermione snapped. â€Å"Dragon blood’s amazingly magical, but you wouldn’t want a dragon for a pet, would you?† Harry and Ron grinned at Hagrid, who gave them a furtive smile from behind his bushy beard. Hagrid would have liked nothing better than a pet dragon, as Harry, Ron, and Hermione knew only too well – he had owned one for a brief period during their first year, a vicious Norwegian Ridgeback by the name of Norbert. Hagrid simply loved monstrous creatures, the more lethal, the better. â€Å"Well, at least the skrewts are small,† said Ron as they made their way back up to the castle for lunch an hour later. â€Å"They are now,† said Hermione in an exasperated voice, â€Å"but once Hagrid’s found out what they eat, I expect they’ll be six feet long.† â€Å"Well, that won’t matter if they turn out to cure seasickness or something, will it?† said Ron, grinning slyly at her. â€Å"You know perfectly well I only said that to shut Malfoy up,† said Hermione. â€Å"As a matter of fact I think he’s right. The best thing to do would be to stamp on the lot of them before they start attacking us all.† They sat down at the Gryffindor table and helped themselves to lamb chops and potatoes. Hermione began to eat so fast that Harry and Ron stared at her. â€Å"Er – is this the new stand on elf rights?† said Ron. â€Å"You’re going to make yourself puke instead?† â€Å"No,† said Hermione, with as much dignity as she could muster with her mouth bulging with sprouts. â€Å"I just want to get to the library.† â€Å"What?† said Ron in disbelief. â€Å"Hermione – it’s the first day back! We haven’t even got homework yet!† Hermione shrugged and continued to shovel down her food as though she had not eaten for days. Then she leapt to her feet, said, â€Å"See you at dinner!† and departed at high speed. When the bell rang to signal the start of afternoon lessons, Harry and Ron set off for North Tower where, at the top of a tightly spiraling staircase, a silver stepladder led to a circular trapdoor in the ceiling, and the room where Professor Trelawney lived. The familiar sweet perfume spreading from the fire met their nostrils as they emerged at the top of the stepladder. As ever, the curtains were all closed; the circular room was bathed in a dim reddish light cast by the many lamps, which were all draped with scarves and shawls. Harry and Ron walked through the mass of occupied chintz chairs and poufs that cluttered the room, and sat down at the same small circular table. â€Å"Good day,† said the misty voice of Professor Trelawney right behind Harry, making him jump. A very thin woman with enormous glasses that made her eyes appear far too large for her face, Professor Trelawney was peering down at Harry with the tragic expression she always wore whenever she saw him. The usual large amount of beads, chains, and bangles glittered upon her person in the firelight. â€Å"You are preoccupied, my dear,† she said mournfully to Harry. â€Å"My inner eye sees past your brave face to the troubled soul within. And I regret to say that your worries are not baseless. I see difficult times ahead for you, alas†¦most difficult†¦I fear the thing you dread will indeed come to pass†¦.and perhaps sooner than you think†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Her voice dropped almost to a whisper. Ron rolled his eyes at Harry, who looked stonily back. Professor Trelawney swept past them and seated herself in a large winged armchair before the fire, facing the class. Lavender Brown and Parvati Patil, who deeply admired Professor Trelawney, were sitting on poufs very close to her. â€Å"My dears, it is time for us to consider the stars,† she said. â€Å"The movements of the planets and the mysterious portents they reveal only to those who understand the steps of the celestial dance. Human destiny may be deciphered by the planetary rays, which intermingle†¦.† But Harry’s thoughts had drifted. The perfumed fire always made him feel sleepy and dull-witted, and Professor Trelawney’s rambling talks on fortune-telling never held him exactly spellbound – though he couldn’t help thinking about what she had just said to him. â€Å"I fear the thing you dread will indeed come to pass†¦Ã¢â‚¬  But Hermione was right, Harry thought irritably, Professor Trelawney really was an old fraud. He wasn’t dreading anything at the moment at all†¦well, unless you counted his fears that Sirius had been caught†¦but what did Professor Trelawney know? He had long since come to the conclusion that her brand of fortunetelling was really no more than lucky guesswork and a spooky manner. Except, of course, for that time at the end of last term, when she had made the prediction about Voldemort rising again†¦and Dumbledore himself had said that he thought that trance had been genuine, when Harry had described it to him. â€Å"Harry!† Ron muttered. â€Å"What?† Harry looked around; the whole class was staring at him. He sat up straight; he had been almost dozing off, lost in the heat and his thoughts. â€Å"I was saying, my dear, that you were clearly born under the baleful influence of Saturn,† said Professor Trelawney, a faint note of resentment in her voice at the fact that he had obviously not been hanging on her words. â€Å"Born under – what, sorry?† said Harry. â€Å"Saturn, dear, the planet Saturn!† said Professor Trelawney, sounding definitely irritated that he wasn’t riveted by this news. â€Å"I was saying that Saturn was surely in a position of power in the heavens at the moment of your birth†¦.Your dark hair†¦your mean stature†¦tragic losses so young in life†¦I think I am right in saying, my dear, that you were born in midwinter?† â€Å"No,† said Harry, â€Å"I was born in July.† Ron hastily turned his laugh into a hacking cough. Half an hour later, each of them had been given a complicated circular chart, and was attempting to fill in the position of the planets at their moment of birth. It was dull work, requiring much consultation of timetables and calculation of angles. â€Å"I’ve got two Neptunes here,† said Harry after a while, frowning down at his piece of parchment, â€Å"that can’t be right, can it?† â€Å"Aaaaah,† said Ron, imitating Professor Trelawney’s mystical whisper, â€Å"when two Neptunes appear in the sky, it is a sure sign that a midget in glasses is being born, Harry†¦.† Seamus and Dean, who were working nearby, sniggered loudly, though not loudly enough to mask the excited squeals from Lavender Brown – â€Å"Oh Professor, look! I think I’ve got an unaspected planet! Oooh, which one’s that, Professor?† â€Å"It is Uranus, my dear,† said Professor Trelawney, peering down at the chart. â€Å"Can I have a look at Uranus too, Lavender?† said Ron. Most unfortunately, Professor Trelawney heard him, and it was this, perhaps, that made her give them so much homework at the end of the class. â€Å"A detailed analysis of the way the planetary movements in the coming month will affect you, with reference to your personal chart,† she snapped, sounding much more like Professor McGonagall than her usual airy-fairy self. â€Å"I want it ready to hand in next Monday, and no excuses!† â€Å"Miserable old bat,† said Ron bitterly as they joined the crowds descending the staircases back to the Great Hall and dinner. â€Å"That’ll take all weekend, that will†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Lots of homework?† said Hermione brightly, catching up with them. â€Å"Professor Vector didn’t give us any at all!† â€Å"Well, bully for Professor Vector,† said Ron moodily. They reached the entrance hall, which was packed with people queuing for dinner. They had just joined the end of the line, when a loud voice rang out behind them. â€Å"Weasley! Hey, Weasley!† Harry, Ron, and Hermione turned. Malfoy, Crabbe, and Goyle were standing there, each looking thoroughly pleased about something. â€Å"What?† said Ron shortly. â€Å"Your dad’s in the paper, Weasley!† said Malfoy, brandishing a copy of the Daily Prophet and speaking very loudly, so that everyone in the packed entrance hall could hear. â€Å"Listen to this! FURTHER MISTAKES AT THE MINISTRY OF MAGIC It seems as though the Ministry of Magic’s troubles are not yet at an end, writes Rita Skeeter, Special Correspondent. Recently under fire for its poor crowd control at the Quidditch World Cup, and still unable to account for the disappearance of one of its witches, the Ministry was plunged into fresh embarrassment yesterday by the antics of Arnold Weasley, of the Misuse of Muggle Artifacts Office.† Malfoy looked up. â€Å"Imagine them not even getting his name right, Weasley. It’s almost as though he’s a complete nonentity, isn’t it?† he crowed. Everyone in the entrance hall was listening now. Malfoy straightened the paper with a flourish and read on: Arnold Weasley, who was charged with possession of a flying car two years ago, was yesterday involved in a tussle with several Muggle law-keepers (â€Å"policemen†) over a number of highly aggressive dustbins. Mr. Weasley appears to have rushed to the aid of â€Å"Mad-Eye† Moody, the aged ex-Auror who retired from the Ministry when no longer able to tell the difference between a handshake and attempted murder. Unsurprisingly, Mr. Weasley found, upon arrival at Mr. Moody’s heavily guarded house, that Mr. Moody had once again raised a false alarm. Mr. Weasley was forced to modify several memories before he could escape from the policemen, but refused to answer Daily Prophet questions about why he had involved the Ministry in such an undignified and potentially embarrassing scene. â€Å"And there’s a picture, Weasley!† said Malfoy, flipping the paper over and holding it up. â€Å"A picture of your parents outside their house – if you can call it a house! Your mother could do with losing a bit of weight, couldn’t she?† Ron was shaking with fury. Everyone was staring at him. â€Å"Get stuffed, Malfoy,† said Harry. â€Å"C’mon, Ron†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Oh yeah, you were staying with them this summer, weren’t you, Potter?† sneered Malfoy. â€Å"So tell me, is his mother really that porky, or is it just the picture?† â€Å"You know your mother, Malfoy?† said Harry – both he and Hermione had grabbed the back of Ron’s robes to stop him from launching himself at Malfoy – â€Å"that expression she’s got, like she’s got dung under her nose? Has she always looked like that, or was it just because you were with her?† Malfoy’s pale face went slightly pink. â€Å"Don’t you dare insult my mother, Potter.† â€Å"Keep your fat mouth shut, then,† said Harry, turning away. BANG! Several people screamed – Harry felt something white-hot graze the side of his face – he plunged his hand into his robes for his wand, but before he’d even touched it, he heard a second loud BANG, and a roar that echoed through the entrance hall. â€Å"OH NO YOU DON’T, LADDIE!† Harry spun around. Professor Moody was limping down the marble staircase. His wand was out and it was pointing right at a pure white ferret, which was shivering on the stone-flagged floor, exactly where Malfoy had been standing. There was a terrified silence in the entrance hall. Nobody but Moody was moving a muscle. Moody turned to look at Harry – at least, his normal eye was looking at Harry; the other one was pointing into the back of his head. â€Å"Did he get you?† Moody growled. His voice was low and gravelly. â€Å"No,† said Harry, â€Å"missed.† â€Å"LEAVE IT!† Moody shouted. â€Å"Leave – what?† Harry said, bewildered. â€Å"Not you – him!† Moody growled, jerking his thumb over his shoulder at Crabbe, who had just frozen, about to pick up the white ferret. It seemed that Moody’s rolling eye was magical and could see out of the back of his head. Moody started to limp toward Crabbe, Goyle, and the ferret, which gave a terrified squeak and took off, streaking toward the dungeons. â€Å"I don’t think so!† roared Moody, pointing his wand at the ferret again – it flew ten feet into the air, fell with a smack to the floor, and then bounced upward once more. â€Å"I don’t like people who attack when their opponent’s back’s turned,† growled Moody as the ferret bounced higher and higher, squealing in pain. â€Å"Stinking, cowardly, scummy thing to do†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The ferret flew through the air, its legs and tail flailing helplessly. â€Å"Never – do – that – again -† said Moody, speaking each word as the ferret hit the stone floor and bounced upward again. â€Å"Professor Moody!† said a shocked voice. Professor McGonagall was coming down the marble staircase with her arms full of books. â€Å"Hello, Professor McGonagall,† said Moody calmly, bouncing the ferret still higher. â€Å"What – what are you doing?† said Professor McGonagall, her eyes following the bouncing ferret’s progress through the air. â€Å"Teaching,† said Moody. â€Å"Teach – Moody, is that a student?† shrieked Professor McGonagall, the books spilling out of her arms. â€Å"Yep,† said Moody. â€Å"No!† cried Professor McGonagall, running down the stairs and pulling out her wand; a moment later, with a loud snapping noise, Draco Malfoy had reappeared, lying in a heap on the floor with his sleek blond hair all over his now brilliantly pink face. He got to his feet, wincing. â€Å"Moody, we never use Transfiguration as a punishment!† said Professor McGonagall wealdy. â€Å"Surely Professor Dumbledore told you that?† â€Å"He might’ve mentioned it, yeah,† said Moody, scratching his chin unconcernedly, â€Å"but I thought a good sharp shock -â€Å" â€Å"We give detentions, Moody! Or speak to the offender’s Head of House!† â€Å"I’ll do that, then,† said Moody, staring at Malfoy with great dislike. Malfoy, whose pale eyes were still watering with pain and humiliation, looked malevolently up at Moody and muttered something in which the words â€Å"my father† were distinguishable. â€Å"Oh yeah?† said Moody quietly, limping forward a few steps, the dull clunk of his wooden leg echoing around the hall. â€Å"Well, I know your father of old, boy†¦.You tell him Moody’s keeping a close eye on his son†¦you tell him that from me†¦.Now, your Head of House’ll be Snape, will it?† â€Å"Yes,† said Malfoy resentfully. â€Å"Another old friend,† growled Moody. â€Å"I’ve been looking forward to a chat with old Snape†¦.Come on, you†¦Ã¢â‚¬  And he seized Malfoy’s upper arm and marched him off toward the dungeons. Professor McGonagall stared anxiously after them for a few moments, then waved her wand at her fallen books, causing them to soar up into the air and back into her arms. â€Å"Don’t talk to me,† Ron said quietly to Harry and Hermione as they sat down at the Gryffindor table a few minutes later, surrounded by excited talk on all sides about what had just happened. â€Å"Why not?† said Hermione in surprise. â€Å"Because I want to fix that in my memory forever,† said Ron, his eyes closed and an uplifted expression on his face. â€Å"Draco Malfoy, the amazing bouncing ferret.† Harry and Hermione both laughed, and Hermione began doling beef casserole onto each of their plates. â€Å"He could have really hurt Malfoy, though,† she said. â€Å"It was good, really, that Professor McGonagall stopped it -â€Å" â€Å"Hermione!† said Ron furiously, his eyes snapping open again, â€Å"you’re ruining the best moment of my life!† Hermione made an impatient noise and began to eat at top speed again. â€Å"Don’t tell me you’re going back to the library this evening?† said Harry, watching her. â€Å"Got to,† said Hermione thickly. â€Å"Loads to do.† â€Å"But you told us Professor Vector -â€Å" â€Å"It’s not schoolwork,† she said. Within five minutes, she had cleared her plate and departed. No sooner had she gone than her seat was taken by Fred Weasley. â€Å"Moody!† he said. â€Å"How cool is he?† â€Å"Beyond cool,† said George, sitting down opposite Fred. â€Å"Supercool,† said the twins’ best friend, Lee Jordan, sliding into the seat beside George. â€Å"We had him this afternoon,† he told Harry and Ron. â€Å"What was it like?† said Harry eagerly. Fred, George, and Lee exchanged looks full of meaning. â€Å"Never had a lesson like it,† said Fred. â€Å"He knows, man,† said Lee. â€Å"Knows what?† said Ron, leaning forward. â€Å"Knows what it’s like to be out there doing it,† said George impressively. â€Å"Doing what?† said Harry. â€Å"Fighting the Dark Arts,† said Fred. â€Å"He’s seen it all,† said George. â€Å"‘Mazing,† said Lee. Ron dived into his bag for his schedule. â€Å"We haven’t got him till Thursday!† he said in a disappointed voice. How to cite Chapter 13 Mad-eye Moody, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Selection Training of Pran Essay Example

Selection Training of Pran Essay Executive Summary Selection is a key component in the acquisition of human resources. Without a reliable and effective selection mechanism, a business can never flourish, especially in the present world of market economy, which is fiercely competitive. Big multinational corporate houses try to recruit the best people in order to continue their dominance in the market. In such circumstances, local firms should also be concerned and put their best to select best available persons Training is another component of human resource management, which needs special attention. Selecting the potential candidates will not serve the purpose until they are grouped up appropriately to meet the requirements of the job . At present many sophisticated techniques are Selection Training available for providing training to employees. But unfortunately, in Bangladesh, traditional techniques, whose affectivity is relatively lower, are mostly used . There are ample scopes in most of the local organization to enhance the performance level of employees by adequate and effective training programs. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is my pleasure to acknowledge the effort of the report of â€Å"Selection and Training process in PRAN Group† and lecturer’s, students and other personnel for supporting such a nice program, from which I have earned a wonderful experience. I would like to thank my honorable advisor and course coordinator Ms. Farzana Elahi Asian University of Bangladesh , for providing proper guidance and help to complete the research project. I would also like to acknowledge the following personnel and classmates for helping me to make report in several ways. Iqbal Hossain (Manager, HRD PRAN Group) †¢Mamunur Rashid (GM, PRAN Group) 1. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: †¢ To study the selection process and selection devices used in PRAN group. †¢ To study the training programs and methods used in PRAN Group. †¢ To evaluate the selection process and training programs of PRAN Group. †¢ To coordinate the theories of selection and training in a real life †¢ Situation. †¢ To coordinate the scope of improvement in the selection and training of PRAN Group. 2 Methodologies Reviewing the theory of selection and Recruitment †¢ Selection of the organization to be studied. †¢ Determining the variables required. †¢ Developing a questionnaire on the basis of required information. †¢ Interviewing the personnel orally and with the questionnaire. †¢ Studying the supplied materials by the organization. †¢ Analyzing the collected materials and information. †¢ Correlating the analyzed information with theory. †¢ Assessing the overall selection and training procedures in PRAN Group. 3 Limitations of the study It was often difficult to correlate theory with practice as the selection and training processes of PRAN Group, which is not very well defined and systematic. †¢ Due to secrecy of business strategy, the authority of PRAN GROUP did not disclose much in-depth information regarding organization. †¢ Corporat e executives usually remain very busy. It is difficult to get adequate time from them. More importantly, sometimes they expressed once, which was embarrassing for the authors. 1 History of PRAN PRAN is the brand name of Agricultural Marketing Co. We will write a custom essay sample on Selection Training of Pran specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Selection Training of Pran specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Selection Training of Pran specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Ltd. (AMCL). It was launched in 1983 as an agricultural business. The company was established to serve diverse purposes like serving small farmers with inputs, marketing farm products, organizing contract growers to grow specific crops and exporting of agricultural products. PRAN stands for 11 â€Å"Program for Rural Advancement Nationally†. The Mission of the company is to generate employment opportunity and to earn dignity and self-respect for their compatriots. The objective of the company is to achieve social values with sustainable pecuniary advantage. The company is very much vertically integrated that starts from the mango cultivation up to the finished products in different forms. The company makes available farm inputs at the farmers doorstep. They go for cultivation and processing of hybrid tomato, baby corn and mango through contract farmers on commercial scale. PRAN has latest technology that can produce pineapple round the year. PRAN also introduced tissue culturing, cultivation, processing, canning and dehydration of the mushrooms on commercial basis. In the factory it has food processing plant and pulping plant, which supply the ingredients for the main plant. Unlike other companies who are importing raw materials from other countries, PRAN is basically trying to help the farmer community of Bangladesh. Country can be proud to have PRAN because it is made from our mango and sugar. AMCL set up its bottling and canning factory on 8 acres of land in May 1991. Over the years the factory has expanded substantially in all spheres of food processing such bottling, canning, pulping, pickling, concentrating, dehydrating as well as installation of Bangladeshs first tetra pack facility for juices and modem extrusion plant for snack food. Machinery for all these lines are being installed, expanded, modified and fabricated continuously. PRAN became very successful competing with strong multinational companies like Coke, Pepsi, and big companies from different parts of the world from very beginning. It has a strong distribution channel, which helped the company to become successful in the beverage industry. One other important factor that is needed to sustain in this business is to have a very strong market. Though Bangladesh is a highly populated country with 120 million people, there are very few people who can afford to have a quality product like PRAN. If market grows and over all macro economic condition improves then companies like PRAN can sell high volumes. For the development of beverage industry three things are needed. One is company like PRAN should come with quality products, good distribution network and important thing is increasing the income level of people to afford quality products. 2 Subsidiary Enterprises PRAN Group is one of the fastest growing corporate houses in the country. It has got quit good number of subsidiary enterprises, which includes: †¢ Property Development Ltd. (PDL): This is the oldest enterprise of PRAN Group. The Group was established on the profit made by PDL. This enterprise is one of the pioneers in apartment business in Dhaka. †¢ Property Lifts: It is a new enterprise of PRAN Group. It imports elevators and other accessories to meet the growing demand of modern lifts and escalators. †¢ Rangpur Foundry Ltd. (RFL): This is an established engineering enterprise, which focuses to meet the demand of rural community of Bangladesh. A tube well made by RFL is most prominent in the country. †¢Agricultural Marketing Co Ltd. (AMCL): AMCL was started as a fruit processing enterprise. Gradually, other sectors of food industry (e. g. Chips, mineral water, Tomato Ketchup etc. ) were also incorporated in the manifold of AMCL. At present, AMCL has become the flagship enterprise of PRAN Group. Most of the resources of PRAN Group are now devoted for the growth and operation of AMCL. In the long run, the group intends to become a global leader in the field of agricultural industry. 3 Products of PRAN The average sales growth of PRAN is more than 70%, which is an extraordinary growth. PRAN is in bottles, tetra packs, and in plastic bottles. RAN currently producing and marketing the following products: ? Mango, Orange and Pineapple juice, ? Pineapple slices, ? Orange, Apple and Litchi drink, ? Mushrooms, gherkin, mango, pineapple, lemon and orange squashes, ? Mango, mixed fruit and Pineapple jams, ? Orange and Apple jelly, ? Tomato ketchup, ? Mango, Olive, Chili, Garlic, Jujube and Satkora pickles ? White and Malted vinegar ? Rose Kewra flavored water, ? Mineral water ? Dehydrated Banana, Jackfruit, Mango and Pineapple. ? Full cream liquid Milk etc. 4) Present Activities of PRAN PRAN exports processed and semi-processed fruits, vegetables and mushroom products to U. S. A. , UK, France, Italy, Australia Germany, India, Nepal, and Bhutan etc. It is focusing heavily on export of their products to many parts of the world. PRAN has a state of the art modern food processing plant, which many other countries do not have today. PRAN has lots of loyal customers. Right now PRAN is producing 7000 to B cases a day. PRAN is setting u p a new machine, which will be able to produce 15000 cases a day and the total production will be 23000 cases a day. The quality control measures of PRAN are much stricter than any other company. PRAN is selling their products to Biman Bangladesh Airlines, Hotel Sonargaon and Sheraton and many other companies. This year PRAN has started production of snakes. They will also introduce confectionery products. They are planning to process aseptic bagging and storage juices for the local market. It is trying to tie up joint ventures with India to make PRAN plant in India and Nepal. PRANs target is to go out of Bangladesh and compete in the global level, which will bring foreign currency to our country. It has also several futures backward forward expansion plans like expansion of bottling, packing and tetra-pack line. It is also planning to set up 3000 MT capacity cold storage, potato cultivation, processing, freezing, pineapple plantation, export of mango, pineapple and tomato juice and paste, production of dairy milk products, set up poultry project, production of potato chips and French fries. (A) Steps in Selection Process 1. Getting Requisition of the Vacant Posts Prior to the selection process a requisition of the vacant posts is obtained from the CEO as per approved by the individual department heads. Then starts actual searching of suitable candidates. Internal search is done first, and if necessary then external search is done. 2. Raising Advertisement In case of internal search an advertisement of specified pattern (attached in the appendix) is circulated over the various department notice board. If no suitable candidates are found in internal search, an option of head hunting comes first. A sample notice of head hunting is also included in appendix. Then the company goes to advertise in the renowned national daily newspaper. Specifically, for mid level and top level management, the company directly goes to newspaper advertisement. The higher the position in the organization the more specialized the skills, or the shorter the supply of that kind in the labor market, the more widely dispersed the advertisement 3. Receiving Application Form Always more than adequate numbers of candidates submit application. These applications usually include the candidates name, letter address and phone numbers. PRAN Group doesnt provide these application forms. Applicants submit their curriculum vitae or comprehensive Personal profile with me application form. So the company gets a synopsis of what the applicants have been doing during their adult life, their skill and accomplishments. It is to note that PRAN Group doesnt bother about initial screening of selection process. 4. Short Listing the Candidates In PRAN Group during short listing, at first, a preliminary review of potentially acceptable candidates is made- Then the selectors are confronted with a number of potential candidates. Based on the curriculum vitae, job description, and job specification some of these respondents are eliminated- Factors that lead to a negative decision include inadequate or inappropriate experience or similarly inadequate or inappropriate education. For an example, how they make the short list of candidates we can mention that recently they seek a production manager having 5 7 years related experience. For this post several application forms were received. Among these one was such that the applicant is currently doing job in a project getting Tk. 50000 salary per month. He did his graduation from a British University having related job experience of 5 years. As the selection committee knows about the range of salary package, and considering other practical aspects they initially rejected that application form. 5. Preparing and Sending Interview Cards On receipt of application forms the short listed candidates are considered to receive interview cards. Specially, for mid4evel and top4evel management posts, interview cards are issued. These interview cards are usually sent in normal national postal service. Applicants are given no TA (transport allowance) or DA (day allowance). The company bears no responsibility of Accidentally missing interview cards. 6. Employment Tests Usually employment tests are designed for lower-mind and mid level management posts. These tests usually include intelligence, aptitude, ability, and interest tests. However, many of the general intelligence tests have a disparate impact on minorities. But, the company doesnt pay attention to alter the existing test procedure through validity testing. 7. Final Comprehensive Interview After employment tests being held, every individual candidate is taken to face a comprehensive interview. Since, in the PRAN Group, there is no initial screening interview; in this comprehensive interview the management describes the job in enough detail to the candidates so that whether they were really serious about the job. The management also bargains about salary range with the applicants. They check whether the applicant is willing to work at any place in the country where their office is available. In the PRAN Group, the final comprehensive interview the selection department officials, the Officials of the department that has vacant post(s) and an official of legal administration interview applicants. The interviewers try to probe into that hidden area of the applicants that cant be addressed by the application form of tests viz. ssessing ones motivation, ability to work under pressure, and ability to fit in with the organization. 7. 1 Modalities of Interview Process Usually the interview board comprises of 3/4 persons. Before the interview starts, interviewers are supplied with all the information of the candidates. This includes the curriculum vitae and the result of the written test. There are no predetermined criteria of evaluation or questions. Interviewers ask questions according to their indi vidual judgment. Interviewers together usually give a combined grade. That is, after the departure of a candidate from the room; interviewers discuss among themselves regarding the strong and weak points of the candidate and compare the candidate with other candidates. Finally, with the consent of other members of the board, the chairman of the interview board gives a final grade. That grade is considered as the opinion of the whole board. 7. 2 Features of Interview: The following features characterize the interview process, typically carried out in PRAN group. †¢ Qualifications evaluated. Through the interview process, it is tried to ascertain whether the applicant is serious to get the appointment. The management of PRAN Group does not want to face a situation where they select the best available person in terms of education, written test score and other qualifications; but who does not feel motivated to do the concern job. †¢ Interviewers. Interview board in PRAN Group typically consists of the representatives from HRM Department, representatives of the concerned department for which employee is being selected and sometimes representatives of the CEO. †¢ No training for the Interviewers. Interviewers are not given any special training for taking interview. It is assumed that since the persons taking the interview are related with the job (a senior official of the concerned department, for which appointment is being made is always present), so the selection would be flawless. †¢ No structured questionnaire: Interviewers ask different questions to different applicants using their discretion and experience. †¢ No standard score sheet. After departure of an applicant, chairman of the interview board discusses with other members of the board and they reach a consensus regarding a grade to be provided to the applicant. The chairman thus gives the final grade. 8. Making List of Suitable Candidates After having a comprehensive interview, the selection committee (headed by the responsible department head) makes a list of suitable candidates who may be selected finally. Specially, written test scores are given more weightage. If an applicant perform poorly in the final comprehensive interview, he still has opportunity to be selected depending upon his written test score. However, sometimes the selection committee selects candidate if the candidate perform very well during the interview. 9. Final Employment decision This crucial decision always takes the Chief Executive Officer of the PRAN Group. The CEO takes a list of suitable candidates from the selection committee (headed by the responsible department head) from which he selects the final candidates. The CEO may ignore the suggested candidate without showing any reason. Suppose, the selection committee has selected a candidate looking at her agile and intelligent performance during interview ignoring his poor performance in written test, the CEO can discard that candidate outright. However, the manager in the department that had the position should make the actual final decision open. The applicant will eventually work for this manager not for the chief executive officer and therefore a good fit between the boss and the employee is necessary- Moreover, if the decision of selecting that applicant will appear wrong the concerned department manager will be solely responsible. (2)Elements of Selecting Applicants The following elements are considered in selection process (1) Education of the candidate (2) Age of the candidate (3) Personality (4) Political involvement (5) Profession 6) Social involvement (7) Discipline (8) Work Experience (9) Reasons for changing Job (10) Pattern of the job change (11) Salary requirement (12) Reasons of applying (1) Introductions Every organization needs to have well-trained and experienced. People to perform the activities We have to be done. If current or potential job occupants can meet this requirement, training is not important. When this is not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees- As jobs have become more complex, the importance of employee training has increased. The PRAN-Group is a conglomerate company and Wishes to be one of the top companies in the country as well as in the world; it needs highly skilled and trained employees. Realizing the importance of training, PRAN has set up a different department for training, named Training Department. (2) The Organogram of Training Department Though the training department is not a big one as other departments, it does a huge task every year. The head of this department is Chief Trainer and a Junior Executive assists him. This department is under direct supervision of Chief Executive Officer (CEO). Thus this department gets very importance within the group. The organogram of this department is shown bellow. (3 ) Training Need Assessment CEO Chief Trainer (PRAN-Group) Junior Executive Fig: Organogram of Training Department This is the vital part of training. Before designing training program it needs to assess the training It is surprising that there was no formal or planned training need assessment system in PRAN Group though they consider training as the vital part of the organization. Without prior assessment they used to do some pre selected training every years and years. Of course the training that they used to give is nevertheless less important yet it demands appropriate training needs assessment. This year they have realized the needs of assessment and accordingly have launched a training need assessment system. They have designed an assessment form to be filled up by various departments. From that form they will the areas of training needs and will design the training program accordingly- However they used to assess training needs by the following ways. (a) What are the organizations goals? (b) What tasks must be completed to achieve these goals? (c) What are the behaviors necessary to complete the tasks? (d) What are the deficiencies the employees have? (4) Formal Employee-Training Methods There are two types of training methods followed by PRAN. These are on- the-job training and off-the-job training. . 1 On-the-job Training The most widely used methods of training take place on the job. This can be attributed to the simplicity of such methods and the impression that they are less costly to operate. On-the -job training places the employees in an actual work situation and makes them appear to be immediately productive. It is learning by doing. For jobs that either are difficult to simulat e or can be learned quickly by watching and doing, on4heAob training makes sense. One of the drawbacks to on4heAob training can be low productivity while the employees develop their skills. Another drawback can be the errors made by the trainees while they learn. However, when the damage the trainees can do is minimal, where training facilities and personnel are limited or costly, and where it is desirable for the workers to loam the job under normal working conditions, the benefits of on-the-job training frequently offset its drawbacks. Apprenticeship Programs: Employees seeking to enter skilled trades to become, for example, special machine operators are often required to undergo apprenticeship training before they are accepted to journeyman status. Typically, this apprenticeship period is two to five years. In PRAN this period is for only six months. This period is often called Probationary period. During the apprenticeship period, the trainee is paid less than a fully qualified worker is. Job Instruction Training (JIT) This is one of the most systematic approaches to train employees. This program is usually carried out in the factories for those employees, who are in the operative positions. JIT consists of four basic steps: †¢ Preparing the trainees by telling them about the job and overcoming their uncertainties. The basic instructions are: o Breaking down the job o Preparing an instruction plan o Putting the learners at ease †¢ Presenting the instruction, giving essential information in a clear manner. The instructions are: o Telling o Showing o Demonstration o Explaining †¢ Having the trainees try out the job to demonstrate their understanding. The basic instructions are: ? Have the learner talk through the job. ? Have the learner instruct the supervisor on how the job is done. ? Let the learner do the job. Provide feedback both positive and negative. ? Let the learner practice. †¢ Placing the workers into the job, on their own, with a designated resource person to call upon should they need assistance. The basic instructions are: ? Checking progress frequently at first. ? Telling the learner whom to go to for help. ? Gradually taper off progress checks. 4. 2 Off-the-job Training Most of the training covered by this company is off-the-job training. Most of these training prog rams are conducted are in the premises of the training department and in the factory of the company. Sometimes the company arranges training outside the company. There are variety techniques that are followed to provide such training. The mostly used technique is classroom lectures. The other techniques are films, demonstrations, case studies and other simulation exercises. Classroom lectures This is well-adapted method to convey specific information-rules, procedures, or methods. Most of the off-the-job training programs are conducted by this method. Sometimes the use of overhead projector (OHP), films and demonstration make the session interesting. The lectures that are given are well structured and formatted. Mainly the chief trainer and junior executive trainer take these lectures. For some training programs the head of different departments also give lectures. These lectures mainly cover the detailed view of the respective departments. The department heads give information about the type of jobs, their internal organizational structure, and areas of responsibilities etc. After each day lecture an exam is taken to get the feedback from the employees. And at the end of the training session a comprehensive exam is taken and the evaluated score is send to the CEO for his consideration. Films PRAN is a large group and it is not an easy task for each employee to get the overall picture of the organizational structure and its activities. There is every possibility that many employees will be in the dark about their organization. Though it is not so much necessary for the employees to know about the whole organization to perform their duties, the vastness of the company may give the employees additional motivation and a sense of security of their jobs. Further more the understanding of the organization will help the employees to understand the organizational goals and their future plans. It will help the employees to be prepared mentally for the forthcoming challenges. With this view the training department arranges films show for the new entries. Demonstration Sometimes during the training session the trainees are asked to demonstrate the behavior on which they are being trained. As for example for sales training, trainees are asked to mockup the behavior that they will exhibit during sales for convincing the clients. This type of training removes the inertia of the employees and helps the employees to be friendly and free with other employees. This is considered as an important part of the training program. Case study Case study programs are usually done for those, who are in the managerial position. But these types of programs are very occasionally done. In fact the training department is not matured and equipped (qualified personnel) enough to arrange such programs. More over the training department concentrates mainly on employee training who will work in the field and in the factory. Training outside the company Sometimes the company arranges training programs outside of the company. These training programs are mainly for engineers. The engineers are sending to Institution of Engineers Bangladesh (IEB). Some top and mid level personnel are sending to Chambers. Because the personnel of the training department are not capable to provide such technical training. These training programs need fund and the, company is always ready to such funds. In one occasion the company sends an engineer to Japan for advanced special training. (5)Types of Training provided The training department arranges various types of training programs for different purposes and for different levels. There are some basic courses for all and some refresher courses. The detailed classification of the training programs is shown bellow. New employee training program This is the basic orientation program for the new management trainee for the head office. This is a three days program. Here the trainees are given a detailed @ about the total organization and usually conducted by different department heads. Mid management level training program This training is only for mid management level. The purpose of this training is to develop managerial skill and increase their job performance efficiency. Factory management training This is behavior- modification training and given to the factory supervisors. The purpose of this training is to modify the behavior of the supervisors to supervise the employees and to exhibit such behavior that are necessary to with co-workers to attain the desired production level. Sales training This training is for the employees of the sales department. The purpose of this training is to help the sales person to perform their work activities. This includes method of filling the sales form, the sales technique, the company sales policy, distribution channel etc. There is two of this type of training programs. They are: ? Basic sales course for new entries Senior sales management training ? Junior sales management training. Factory training There are two types: †¢ Factory union training †¢ Distribution loaders Factory union training: PRAN has labor union in its entire factory. To handle the unions the training department gives training to employees and supervisors. Any disruption in the production would hamper its market share. So the department g ives employees some behavioral modification training to have an effective and efficient employee union. Distribution loaders: PRAN has a very effective distribution network and skilled work force. To ensure smooth distribution the department frequently gives necessary training to its employees Store management training This training program is for store employees of factory and head office. Office assistant training This training is given to the employees, who work as office assistant. Distribution sales management training This is vital training as sales managers play a vital role for the growth of the company. This program mainly includes the techniques of sales decisions that are taken frequently on the spot by the managers. It also includes the making of future sales forecast for planning purposes. Material management training PRAN procure raw materials from inside the country as well as from outside of the country. It handles raw material which are highly perishable in nature such mango, tomato, orange pineapples etc. To handle such raw materials it requires special training. The training department provides such training to the employees who deal with material management. Supervisors training PRAN has a huge supervising force. It has sales supervisors, distribution and loading supervisors, factory supervisors etc. Depending on the type of works supervisors are given different training . Basic English course In the near future the training department is planning to introduce this course for management level employees. As PRAN is going into joint venture with some international companies, it is considering to preparing the employees to fit in the international business atmosphere. Further more, now English is required in all respects of office works. PRAN follows English in most its official works. But as our present education system doesnt ensure good command on English for the graduates, it is preparing to introduce English Course in training program. (6) Future Plan of Employee Training The training department is planning to need basis training instead of course basis. At present the department is offering different preset training programs for different employees. Sometimes it overlooks the real needs of the appropriate training. So the department has planned for offering need-basis training and for this it is preparing a systematic procedure for assessment of training needs. The idea behind this training is that though existing training programs are doing a lot for the development of the skills and behavior of the employees, it needs a change due to change in corporate culture and competitiveness among the organizations. The vision of this group is to be top organization in all respects. To cope its employees with all these change in the global business atmosphere it requires immediate review of all the present training programs. In this circumstance the company is planning to take a modem approach for its training programs. With this view PRAN is going for following need basis training. (1) Findings about Selection Discreet selection Process PRAN Group follows a discrete selection process that comprises of mainly application form, written tests, and comprehensive interview. Initial screening, physical examination, and background investigation are not in the selection process of PRAN Group. No Structured Interview Interview taken during the selection process is not structured. Interviewers ask questions according to their discretion. All the applicants are not asked the same questions. Final Employment Decision Final Employment Decision in PRAN Group is taken by the CEO. Reliability of Selection Tests There is no proof of reliability of the selection devices used in PRAN Group. Validity of Selection Tests In most cases there is no evaluation of the validity of selection devices in PRAN Group. However, in few cases, such as mid level management positions, content validity exists. Applicants of mid-level management positions are often given tests, which resembles actual job. Emphasis on Written Test The top management emphasizes most on written test. Person with poor performance in interview can expect to be employed if he / she had done well in the written test. But the reverse is not true. Variable cut score Cut scores in the selection tests are frequently changed considering the environmental change. If number of applicants is quite big relative to job openings, then a high cut-score is set. On the contrary, if number of qualified applicants is relatively low, then a moderate or law cut-score is fixed. No quota There is no quota system in PRAN Group for selecting an employee. The sole criterion of getting selected is ones qualifications. (2) Findings about Training Absence of Paper Training need Assessment No comprehensive system is there to determine the training need of the employees of PRAN Group. Training programs provided are determined by the traditional view about the training needs (e. g. employees need basic training course to know about the organization). With the changing circumstances, it is not possible for the management to know about the changing pattern of training needs of the employees well in advance. Diversified Training Program Training department of PRAN Group provides variety of training programs to cater the need of the employees. Employees are trained about desired behavior, about the Objective and operation Of the Organization; even they are trained on trade unions. Such diversified array of training programs is a plus point for PRAN Group as various types of training needs can be fulfilled using internal resources. Lack of Management Development programs Though there are ample scope and arrangements of training for employees, but the training opportunity for the managers is relatively low. Special and customized need of managers cannot be fulfilled by the training programs provided by the training department of PRAN Group. Poor Evaluation Of the effectiveness of Training Programs At present, sales volume and Annual Confidential Report are considered as an index to determine the effectiveness of a training program. 13ut there could e many reasons besides training, such as Provision of incentives, need for growth etc. which could have affected the sales volume or ACR of an individual. No mechanism is there to filter the effectiveness of training program alone. Moreover, in many cases the evaluation of the effectiveness is based fully on the subjective perception of individuals. Less Simulation Exercises Training methods employed in PRAN Group are mostly lecture-oriented. There is a dearth of simu lation exercises. Though limited opportunity of simulation exercises. Like mock sales by the sales representative or case study by the line managers are there in PRAN Group, but overall quantity of such training mechanism is low. (1) Recommendations About Selection Increase of Reliability and Validity of the Selection Devices No measure of reliability of the selection devices used in PRAN Group has yet been done. Validity of the devices is also very low. To enhance the possibility of choosing the right candidate, reliability and validity of the selection devices should be taken into consideration. For this purpose, advice of a management expert might be taken. Introduction of Structured Interview Interviews should be structured in order to have n increased reliability. A fixed set of questions should be presented to every applicant. Thus a more consistent and unbiased result might be reached. Avoidance of Prior information before the Interview Placing the curriculum vitae and scores of written test in front of the interview board beforehand causes a possibility of bias. This practice should be stopped in order to have unbiased result. Training of Interviewers Interviewers should know about how to take interview in order to select the suitable employee. Brief training might be provided to the interviewers for this purpose. Introduction of Realistic Job Preview In order to remove undue and inflated ideas of applicants regarding the job or the organization, realistic job preview should be emphasized. At present, there is no way that an aspirant employee can know about the problems and hardship associated with the job. If an employee knows beforehand about the negative points of the job and then join, then the possibility of turnover would decrease significantly. So, realistic job preview should be provided to the applicants. This may be done by providing brochures, or script made up of realistic statements that accurately portray the job. Introduction of Physical Examination Appearance always does not reflect the true health of an individual. So, a basic physical examination should be applicable to all new recruits just to ensure that they have the minimum qualifications needed to bear the stress of the workload. (2) Recommendations about Training Training Need Assessment To develop and implement an effective training program, it is important to know the areas where training is mostly needed. There should be specific mechanism whereby the management can know which type of training is needed by the employees and take action accordingly. The management can adopt any of the following methods to determine training needs: Observation and analysis of job performance, Management and staff conferences, Analysis of job requirements, Consideration of current and projected changes etc. Comprehensive Evaluation of Training Effectiveness No systematic and flawless evaluation method is followed in PRAN Group to evaluate the effectiveness of different training programs. Minimizing subjective perception, the management should try to evaluate the training programs quantitatively. While measuring the effectiveness of a training program, effort should be there to ensure that other factors besides training do not contaminate the final result. Experimental-control group method would be better to evaluate the training programs. Use of Simulation Exercises Simulation techniques are very effective for training, especially for management development. At present, the use of simulation techniques is not sufficient. More simulation techniques like, case study, decision games, and role plays should be used in order to make the training programs more effective. More Personnel for the Training Department At present, only two persons look after the training department. They have the responsibility to determine the training needs of employees, as well as to develop and implement the training programs. Though, experts of other departments often come to training department as instructor and this reduces the workload of the two personnel of training department to a certain extent; but still the departments need more personnel to carry out its operation smoothly. Inclusion of New Training Programs: Training programs provided by the training department of PRAN Group are not adequate enough to meet the changing requirements of the employees. To keep track with the fast moving corporate world and market economy, PRAN Group should introduce new training programs. APPPENDIX Bibliography Gary Dessier –7th Edition John . M. lvancevich—7th Edition Milcovich5th Edition M. Omar Ali –2nd Edition Ricky W. Griffin –7th Edition